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Digital library

Many organisations, such as scientific libraries or Google, scan books and journals and publish them on-line (e.g. as pdf file). The result is that many books can be viewed on-line, or even downloaded. This includes books of historic oceanographic interest. As copyrights may apply, not all is available (yet).

Examples include the first half of the ‘Livraisons’ of the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900), reports of the Challenger (1873-1876), Nordhavs (1876-1878), Plankton Expedition (1889), Ingolf (1895-1896), Belgica (1897-1899).
‘Standard’ texts, such as Maury's ‘The physical geography of the sea’ (1855), Fredol's ‘Le Monde de la Mer’ (1866), Wyville Thomson's ‘The depths of the sea’ (1874) en Krümmel's ‘Der Ozean’ (1886) are available on-line to view.

Although one may prefer having the real (hard copy) volume in the hand, and/or to visit a real library, the collection of information from virtual libraries can be more efficient. It appears that most pdf files can be searched for keywords.

Following are links to virtual libraries, journals, expedition reports, etc.:



Other (a.o.) books: