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Digital library

Many organisations scan books and journals and publish them on line (e.g. as pdf file), such as scientific libraries, Google. They shall limit copyrights, thus not all is available yet. The reulst is that many books can be viewed on-line, or even downloaded. This includes books of historic oceanographic interest.

Examples include the first half of the ‘Livraisons’ of the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900), reports of the Challenger (1873-1876), Nordhavs (1876-1878), Plankton Expedition (1889), Ingolf (1895-1896), Belgica (1897-1899).
‘Standard’ texts, such as Maury's ‘The physical geography of the sea’ ((1855), Fredol's ‘Le Monde de la Mer’ (1866), Wyville Thomson's ‘The depths of the sea’ (1874) en Krümmel's ‘Der Ozean’ (1886) are available for your view.

Although one may prefer having the real (hard copy) thing in the hand, and to visit a true library, the collection of information from virtual libraries can be more efficient. It appears that most pdfs can be searched for keywords.

Following are links to virtual libraries, journals, expedition reports, etc.:



Other (a.o.) books: